Effectiveness of Non Formal TVET Programs in Developing Social Skills Competencies among the Vulnerable Youth in Nakuru County-Kenya
Most developing countries are in the process of strategizing TVET programs upon realizing their importance in supporting the socio-economic development of a nation. Recognizing that technical and vocational skills are crucial in enhancing competitiveness and contribution towards social inclusion, decent employment, and poverty reduction has been a strong incentive for TVET reforms. Kenya like most of the developing countries is working towards improving access the quality level of skills for majority of the youth. It is therefore important to explore on the most effective instructional methods to develop specific competencies while training the vulnerable youth. National youth policy in 2007 envisioned a society where the youth between the ages 18 to 3 5 years have equal opportunities to realize their full potential and participate in self and national development. To enable the youth achieve this national mandate, non-formal training programs play a crucial role in supporting the governments' efforts to address youth unemployment especially the vulnerable youth. This paper discusses results of an action research that studied the effectiveness of interactive learning methods for vocational skills in enhancing social skills among the vulnerable youth in Nakuru County. Training on selected vocational skills was conducted to 60 members from vulnerable youth groups. Interviews and observation check list were used to assess the level of social skills among the trainees before and after the training. Qualitative data obtained was coded, analyzed and presented in frequency tables, while quantitative data was analyzed using Pearson chi square test for association. The findings revealed that there was a significant association between the training methods used and the acquisition of ability to communicate and listening skills, team building, time and resource management as well as ability to develop practical solutions to solve specific problems. However the methods used did not enhance self-concept and self-confidence among the trainees. The findings are important to community and technical trainers who would wish to enhance social skills among their learners. Further investigation into the most appropriate methods to enhance other skills among the vulnerable youth was recommended.
Article Views and Downloands Counter
Brown E., Slater H., (2018). Future of Work in Africa: Implications for Secondary Education and TVET Systems. Master card Foundation report. Retrieved from www.acetforafrica.org
Davidson J., Lee, E & Puckett J., (2012). Vocational Education: Missing link in Economic development. Dallas. Boston Consulting Group.
Dgebuadze M., Giorgdze M. (2017). Interactive teaching methods: challenges and perspectives - International E-Journal ofAdvances in Education Dec.2017IJAEDU
DOI: 10.18768/ijaedu.370419. Retrieved from https ://www.researchgate.net/deref/http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F
European Commission, (2013). Transferability of skills across economic sectors by European Commission, Union Programme for employment and social solidarity progress (2007-2013). Retrieved from European Commission research website
Government of Kenya (GoK), (2008). Kenya vision 2030. Nairobi: Government Press.
Kamau, P., & Mwangi, N. (2010). Empowering the youth for self-employment through technical Vocational education: challenges and lesson from youth polytechnics, Journal ofEducation Today: An internationaljournal of education & humanities.
1 (2) Pp.1-15
Kim, Y. (2013). 'Diverging top and converging bottom: Labour flexibility and changes in Career mobility in the USA', Work, Employment and Society. 27(5), 860-790.
Lucas, B. (2014). Vocational Pedagogy: What it is and why it matters. Retrieved from University of Winchester website May 2016
Misug, J. (2014). Employability skills education in technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Retrieved from Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and training website.
Morton, M., & Montgomery, P. (2012). Youth empowerment programs for improving self-efficacy and self-esteem of adolescents. The Campbell Collaboration. Retrieved from www.campbellcollaboration.org June, 2017
National Quality Council (NQC), (2010). Foundation skills in VETproducts for the 21st
century. Published and retrieved from National Quality Council of Australia website.
Omolo, J. (2010). Youth unemployment in Kenya. Retrieved from economic review World Bank economic development forum website.
Raymond, G. Romanczyk, K. Sarawhite, W., Jeniffer, G. (2008). Social skills verses skilled social behaviour: A problematic distinction in autism spectrum disorder. Retrieved from Open Online Journalfor Psychology .
Sharma, P. (2016). Skills and competencies/soft skills in non-formal education: building capacities of the youth. PRIA International Academy Editions /AED83/: https:// wwww.dvv- international.de
Schwarz, M. & Yair, K. (2010). Making value; Making value crafts and the economic and social contribution ofmakers. Retrieved from https://blueprintsfiles.s3.amazonaws.com/1321212530- making_value_full_report.pdf
Snell, D., Gekara, V., & Gatt, K. (2016). Examining the transferability potential ofskills developed within the Australian vocational education and training system. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from RMIT University website.
Terry de Jongetal, K. (2006). Enabling group-based learning in teacher education case study ofstudent experience. Retrieved from Edith Cowan University website.
UNDP, (2012). Skills gap analysis for graduates of youth polytechnics, vocational training centers and out ofschool youth. Nairobi: Government of Kenya.
UNESCO, (2012). Youth and skills: Putting education to work. Paris: Retrieved from United Nations Educational Scientific & Cultural Organization, website.
UNICEF. (2011). Youth situations review & investment in Kenya. Nairobi: Retrieved from Institute of economic affairs. Website.
Weeden, K. (2011 ). Why do some occupations pay more than others? Social closure and earnings inequality in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, vol.108, pp.55-101 .
World Bank. (2015). The role of skills training for youth employment in Nepal: An impact evaluation of the employment fund. Adolescent Girls Initiative (AGIS). Nepal. Retrieved from www.worldbank.org/gender/agi.
Zweig, M. (2003). Vulnerable Youth: Identifying their needs for alternative educational settings. Washington D.C. Retrieved from; The Nonpartisan Urban Institute website
Copyright (c) 2021 Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.Copyright Notice Copyright of published articles is held by AfriTVET. No limitation will be placed on the personal freedom of authors to copy or to use in subsequent work, material contained in their papers. Please contact the Publisher for clarification if you are unsure of the use of copyright material. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of research and private study, or criticism and or review, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the Publishers.