Equity and Social Inclusion in Higher Education: The Funding Dilemma in Public Universities in Kenya

  • *Mohammed Bello Moi University
  • Sammy, K. Chumba, PhD Moi University
Keywords: Equity, Social, change preparedness, funding dilemma, inclusion

Abstract

Equity and social inclusion in education are core to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4. This goal recognizes that education is a human right that should be accessible to all, irrespective of socioeconomic status. Universities are uniquely placed to contribute to the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda by guaranteeing inclusive and equitable education. As citadels of research, knowledge production, and innovation, these institutions are rationally obligated to steer the 2030 Agenda. Indeed, the growth of university education has contributed enormously to Kenya's economic development. Yet, to continue contributing to inclusive and equitable education, universities require finances to reorient, repurpose and refocus. Unfortunately, public universities in Kenya are presently experiencing challenges that threaten their contribution to sustainable development through SDG 4. Therefore, this paper sought to enquire whether funding is a dilemma to universities achievement of equity and social inclusion goals. Besides, the paper considered strategies to address access, quality, and management barriers to inclusive and equitable education in higher education. The paper used the argumentative approach to conclude that inclusive and equitable education in higher education is at the most risk due to the diminishing funding of public universities and the unilateral push by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to overhaul some of these public universities. However, these institutions have the capacity to conduct research towards viable programs. Since funding does not appear as a dilemma to achieving equity and social inclusion in these institutions, this study recommends that the government should rethink the funding strategy in public universities by looking at other strategies like financial exposure awareness, development of principles, and change preparedness in order to enhance these institutions' potential to achieve SDG 4

Article Views and Downloands Counter


Download data is not yet available.

References

Amaral, A. (2022). Equity in higher education: Evidences, policies and practices. Setting the scene. In Equity Policies in Global Higher Education: Reducing Inequality and Increasing Participation and Attainment (pp. 23-46). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-69691-7_2

Aubry, S., de Koning, M., & Adamson, F. (2021). Developing human rights guiding principles on state obligations regarding private education. In Realizing the Abidjan Principles on the Right to Education (pp. 1-23). Edward Elgar Publishing. DOI:10.4337/9781839106033.00009

Barasa, E., Mbau, R. & Gilson. L. (2018). What is resilience and how can it be nurtured? A systematic review of empirical literature on organizational resilience. Int J Health Policy Manag, 7(6):491-503. Doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2018.06.

Burnard, K., Bhamra, R., & Tsinopoulos, C., (2018). Building organizational resilience: Four configurations. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 65(3), 351-362. Doi: 10.1109/TEM.2018.2796181.

Collins, A., Azmat, F., & Rentschler, R. (2019). Bringing everyone on the same journey: Revisiting inclusion in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 44(8), 1475- 1487.DOI:10.1080/03075079.2018.1450852

De Boer, H., Jongbloed, B., Benneworth, P., Cremonini, L., Kolster, R., Kottmann, A., ... & Vossensteyn, H. (2015). Performance-based funding and performance agreements in fourteen higher education systems. Center for Higher Education Policy Studies.

Fredua-Kwarteng , E. (2022, May 21). A sustainable higher education funding model is a priority. University World News. Global Higher Education Management. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20220516142341829

Guerzoni, M., Aldridge, T. T., Audretsch, D. B., & Desai, S. (2017). A new industry creation and originality: Insight from the funding sources of university patents. In Universities and the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem. Edward Elgar Publishing. https://DOI:10.1016/j.respol.2014.07.009

Hall, T., Kakuma, R., Palmer, L., Minas, H., Martins, J., & Kermode, M. (2019). Social inclusion and exclusion of people with mental illness in Timor-Leste: a qualitative investigation with multiple stakeholders. BMC Public Health, 19, 1-13. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-7042-4. https://DOI:10.1186/s12889-019-7042-4

Hargrave, M. (2022, April 12). Economic Exposure. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia. com/terms/e/economicexposure.asp

Jaquette, O., Kramer, D. A., & Curs, B. R. (2018). Growing the pie? The effect of responsibility center management on tuition revenue. The Journal of Higher Education, 89(5), 637-676. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2018.1434276

Kass-Hanna, J., Lyons, A. C., & Liu, F. (2022). Building financial resilience through financial and digital literacy in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Markets Review, 51, 100846. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ememar.2021.100846

Kauzya, J. M. (2020). African local governments and cities in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. Reflections on African Cities in Transition: Selected Continental Experiences, 119-146.DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-46115- 7_6

World Bank. (2021). Kenya Economic Update : Rising Above the Waves (English). Kenya Economic Update, no. 23 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/782411624966067020/Kenya-Economic- Update-Rising-Above-the-Waves

Kenya Law (2010). The constitution of Kenya. https://www.kenyalaw.org/ kl/index.php ?id=398

Khutkyy, D. (2019). Development Agenda: Aspirations of Governments and Citizens. Opinion
Brief.

Kováts-Németh, M. (2020). Public Education in Győr between 1945–1990 in the Respect of Regulations and Laws.

Layzell, D. T. (2007). State higher education funding models: An assessment of current and emerging approaches. Journal of Education Finance, 1-19. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40704312

Maharey, S. (2011). Higher education: Challenges for developing countries. Commonwealth Education Partnerships, 12, 66-67. http://www.cedol.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/02/Steve-Maharey-article.pdf

Manswab, M. A. (2020). Higher Education Loans Board in Kenya from the Islamic Sharia Perspective. DOI:10.24035/ijit.18.2020.179

Miroiu, A., & Vlasceanu, L. (2012). Relating quality and funding: The Romanian case. European Higher Education at the Crossroads: Between the Bologna Process and National Reforms, 791-807. DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-3937-6_41

NGEC (2016). Status of equality and inclusion in Kenya. https://www.ngeckenya. org/Downloads/Status%20of%20Equality%20and%20Inclusion%20in%20Kenya.pdf

Ngugi, M. (2020, July 4). How Module II brought scholarship in Kenyan universities to its knees. Nation. https://nation.africa/kenya/blogs-opinion/opinion/how-module-ii-brought- scholarship-in-kenyan-universities-to-its-knees--45340

Nunes, L. (2021). New directions for diversity, equity, and inclusion in higher education. APS Observer, 34.

Ochieng, O. & Ogejo, W. (2022, January 26). Is Kenya’s Higher Education Funding Model Locking Out Some Learners? Institute of Economic Affairs. Available at https://ieakenya.or.ke/blog/is-kenyas-higher-education-funding-model-locking-out some- learners/

Odhiambo, G. (2018, December). The role of Kenyan universities in national development. In FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education (Vol. 4, No. 3). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1199163.pdf. DOI:10.32865/fire20184324

Okebukola, P. A. (2015). Towards models for creatively funding higher education in Nigeria. Towards Innovative Models for Funding Higher Education in Africa. Accra: Association of African Universities, 45-75. https://www.adeanet.org/en/system /files/ resources/aau- funding-book.pdf

Otiato, G. (2021, November 17). Cash-strapped Kenyan varsities face closure in World Bank loan deal. The East African. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/news/east- africa/universities-face-closure-in-world-bank-loan-deal-3621896

Poncelet, A., Collins, S., Fiore, D., Rosenbluth, G., Loeser, H., Sawaya, G. F., ... & Chang, A. (2023). Identifying Value Factors in Institutional Leaders’ Perspectives on Investing in Health Professions Educators. JAMA Network Open, 6(2), e2256193-e2256193. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.56193

Pruvot, E. B., Claeys-Kulik, A. L., & Estermann, T. (2015). Strategies for efficient funding of universities in Europe. The European higher education area: Between critical reflections and future policies, 153-168. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-20877-0_11

Salmi, J., & D’Addio, A. (2021). Policies for achieving inclusion in higher education. Policy Reviews in Higher Education, 5(1), 47-72.: https://doi.org/10.1080/23322969. 2020.1835529

Searing, E. A., Wiley, K. K., & Young, S. L. (2021). Resiliency tactics during financial crisis: The nonprofit resiliency framework. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 32(2),
179-196. https://doi.org/10.1002/nml.21478

Singh, S., Pandita, R., & Baidwan, K. (2023). Returns on library investment: seeking causative relationship between the library investment and the institutional research output. Collection and Curation, 42(2), 61-71.DOI:10.1108/CC-03-2022-0011

Tobolowsky, B. F., Scannapieco, M., Aguiniga, D. M., & Madden, E. E. (2019). Former foster youth experiences with higher education: Opportunities and challenges. Children and Youth Services Review, 104, 104362. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.05.039

Wafula, P. (2021, May 21). Kenya: Broke Public Universities Lose Sh9 Billion in Budget Cuts. The Daily Nation. https://allafrica.com/stories/202105210646.html

UN. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. https://sdgs.un.org/goals

UNESCO. (1994). The salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs
education. ISBN: 970-18-1020-1. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/search/N-EXPLORE- 4aa3945f-59f4-421c-9fb7-4e2a905e4d5
Published
2024-06-09
How to Cite
Bello, *Mohammed, & Chumba, S. (2024). Equity and Social Inclusion in Higher Education: The Funding Dilemma in Public Universities in Kenya. Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 9(1), 20-27. https://doi.org/10.69641/afritvet.2024.91189